Nike 002 Mujer Internationalist 872922 SE 002 Negras Nike 872922 Internationalist Marrón Marrón SE rqrvz7 Nike 002 Mujer Internationalist 872922 SE 002 Negras Nike 872922 Internationalist Marrón Marrón SE rqrvz7 Nike 002 Mujer Internationalist 872922 SE 002 Negras Nike 872922 Internationalist Marrón Marrón SE rqrvz7 Nike 002 Mujer Internationalist 872922 SE 002 Negras Nike 872922 Internationalist Marrón Marrón SE rqrvz7

Utilidad terapéutica del Cannabis y derivados

P. Lorenzo, J. C. Leza

Resumen


En este capítulo se expone el estado actual del conocimiento sobre las propiedades terapéuticas del Cannabis (marihuana y derivados sintéticos). En los últimos años se han presentado un gran número de evidencias científicas sobre las propiedades terapéuticas de los cannabinoides, en especial analgesia, disminución de la presión intraocular, efecto antiemético en vómitos inducidos por quimioterapia antineoplásica, propiedades relajantes musculares en esclerosis múltiple, traumatismos medulares y alteraciones del movimiento. Además, algunas aportaciones recientes indican otros posibles usos de estas sustancias como neuroprotectores (en modelos animales de enfermedades neurodegenerativas e isquemia cerebral), antiasmáticos y anticonvulsivantes. Más recientemente, algunos compuestos naturales y agentes sintéticos agonistas de receptores CB han demostrado efectos antineoplásicos in vivo e in vitro. En la actualidad se está llevando a cabo un amplio debate internacional sobre las evidencias científicas versus las restricciones de tipo legal sobre el posible uso de estos compuestos. Se necesitan más estudios clínicos cpn el fin de establecer qué dosis, vías de administración son las más adecuadas en cada caso, así como el balance entre beneficio y riesgo comparando los cannabinoides con otras estrategias terapéuticas.


Palabras clave


Nike Negras Internationalist Mujer 002 002 Marrón Nike SE Marrón 872922 Internationalist SE 872922 cannabinoides; marihuana; usos médicos; usos terapéuticos; problemas legales
tacón negro Chika10 Zueco 05 Altura raso Chika10 10cm Ada Zueco gpqwT7

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


ABRAHAMOV A, ABRAHAMOV A, MECHOULAM R. “An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology”. Life Sci (1995) 56: 2097-2102.

ADAMS IB, MARTIN BR. “Cannabis: pharmacology and toxicology in animals and humans”. Addiction (1996) 91: 1585-1614.

ADLER MW, GELLER EB. “Ocular effects of cannabinoids”. In: Cannabinoids as therapeutic agents (ed R Mechoulam) pp 51-70. Boca Raton: CRC Pess (1986).

8 de piel tacón Toscani abierto Arnaldo 5cm Altura Botín w4ZBqSAg

AMES FR, CRIDLAND S. “Anticonvulsant effect of cannabidiol”. South Afr Med J (1986) 69: 14.

BEAL JA, OLSON R, LAUBENSTEIN L, MORALES JO, BELLMAN P, YANGCO B, LEFKOWITZ L, PLASSE TF, SHEPARD KV. “Dronabinol as a treatment for anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS”. J Pain symp Manag (1995) 10: 89-97.

BENNETTS RW. “Marijuana as medicine”. JAMA (1995) 274: 1837.

BIEZENEK A. “Pot eased my daughter’s pain”. BMA News Review (1994), March 25.

BRITISH MEDICAL ASSOCIATION AND THE ROYAL PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN. “British National Formulary, Number 32”. London: The British Medical Association and the Pharmaceutical Press (1996).

BRITISH MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. “The misuse of drugs”. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers (1997).

BRITISH MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. Therapeutic uses of cannabis. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic (1997).

BRUERA E, NEWMANN CM. “The use of psychotropics in symptom menagement in advanced cancer”. Psychooncology (1998) 7: 346-358.

BURSTEIN S. “Marijuana as a medicine”. Nature (1997) 386: 320.

BURSTEIN SH. “The cannabinoid acids: nonpsychoactive derivatives with therapeutic potential”. Pharmacol.Ther. (1999) 82: 87-96.

872922 Marrón Marrón 872922 Negras Mujer Internationalist Internationalist Nike SE 002 SE 002 Nike CANTWELL R, HARRISON G. “Substance misuse in the severeyl mentally ill”. Adv Psych Treat (1996) 2: 117-124.

CARLINI EA, CUNHA JM. “Hypnotic and atiepileptic effects of cannabidiol”. J Clin Pharmacol (1981) 21: 417-427S.

CONSROE P, LAGUNA J, ALLENDER J, SNIDER S, STERN L, SANDYK R, KENNEDY K, SCHRAM K. “Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington´s Disease”. Pharmacol Biochem Behavr (1991) 40: 701-708.

CONSROE P, MUSTY R, TILLERY W, PERTWEE RG. “The perceived effects of cannabis smoking in patients with multiple sclerosis”. Proceedings of the International Cannabinoid Research Society. P7 (1996).

CONSROE P, SANDYK R. “Potential role of cannabinoids for therapy of neurological disorders. In: Marijuana/Cannabinoids. Neurobiology and Neurophysiology (eds Murphy L, Bartke a) pp 459-524, Boca Raton: CRC Press (1992).

CONSROE P, SNIDER R. “Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in neurological disorders. In: Cannabinoids as Therapeutic Agents (ed R Mechoulam) pp 21-49, Boca Raton: CRC Press (1986).

CUNHA JM, CARLINI EA, PEREIRA E, RAMOS OL, PIMENTEL C, GAGLIARDI R, SANVITO WL, LANDER N, MECHOULAM R (1980). “Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients”. Pharmacology (1980) 21: 175-185.

CHESSSHER GB, JACKSON DM. “The quasi-morphine withdrawal syndrome: effect of cannabinol, cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol”. Pharmacol Biochem Behav (1985) 23: 13-15.

EVANS FJ. “The medicinal chemistry of cannabis: O’Shaughnessy’s Legacy”. Pharmaceut Sci (1997) 3: 533-537.

FABRE LF, McLENDON D. “The efficacy and safety of nabilone (a synthetic cannabinoid) in the treatment of anxiety. J Clin Pharmacol (1981) 21: 377S-382S.

02 Chika10 Chika10 tacón Zapatos Zapatos Altura turquesa 8cm Lauper wSISaqB

FERRIMAN A. “Marihuana: The best medicine?” The Times 4th May (1993).

FORMUKONG EA, EVANS AT, EVANS FJ. “The medicinal use of cannabis and its constituents”. Phytother Res (1989) 3: 219-231.

GRAHAM JDP. “The bronchodilator action of cannabinoids. In: Cannabinoids as therapeutic agents (ed R Mechoulam) pp 147-158. Boca Raton: CRC Press (1986).

GREEN K, ROTH M. “Ocular effects of topical administration of Δ9 –tetrahydrocanna-binol in man”. Arch Ophthalmol (1982) 100: 265-267.

Marrón Nike Negras Mujer 872922 002 Internationalist SE SE 002 Internationalist Marrón 872922 Nike GREEN K. “Marijuana smoking vs cannabinoids for glaucoma therapy”. Arch Ophthalmol. (1998) 116: 1433-1437.

SE Internationalist Internationalist 002 Mujer Negras 872922 Nike 872922 002 SE Marrón Marrón Nike GRINSPOON L, BAKALAR JB. “Marihuana, the Forbidden Medicine”. New Haven and London: Yale University Press (1993).

GRINSPOON L, BAKALAR JB. “The use of cannabis as a wood stabilizer in bipolar disorder: Anecdotal evidence and the need for clinical research”. J Psychoact Drugs (1998) 30: 171-177.

GRINSPOON L, BALAKAR JB. “Marihuana as a medicine: a plea for reconsideration. JAMA (1995) 273: 1875-1876.

GROSS H, EGBERT MH, FADEN VB, GODBERG SC, KAYE WH, CAINE ED, HAWKS R, ZINBERG N. “A double-blind trial of delta-9-THC in primary anorexia nervosa”. J Clin Psychopharmacol (1983) 3: 165-171.

SE Nike Internationalist 872922 002 Marrón Mujer Marrón Internationalist Negras 002 872922 Nike SE HALL W, SOLOWIJ N, LEMON J (eds). “The Health and Psychological Consequences of Cannabis Use”. National Drug Strategy Monograph Series No 25, Canberra, Australian Government Publishing Service (1994).

HALL W, SOLOWIJ N. “Long-term cannabis use and mental health. Br J Psychiatry (1997) 1171: 107-108.

HAMPSON AJ, GRIMALDI M, AXELROD J, WINK D. “Cannabidiol and (-) Δ9 –tetra-hydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants”. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (1998) 95: 8268-8273.

HEPLER RS, FRANK IM, PETRUS R. “Ocular effects of marihuana smoking”. In: The Pharmacology of Marihuana volume 1 (ed MC Braude, S Szara) New York: Raven Press (1976).

HEPLER RS, FRANK IR. “Marihuana smoking and intraocular pressure”. JAMA (1971) 217: 1392.

HOLDCROFT A, SMITH M, JACKLIN A, HODGSON H, SMITH B, NEWTON M, EVANS F. “Pain relief with oral cannabinoids in familial Mediterranean fever”. Anaesthesia (1997) 52: 483-488.

HOLLISTER LE. “Health aspects of cannabis”. Pharmacol Rev (1986) 38: 1-20.

JAIN AK, RYAN JR, McMAHON FG, SMITH G. “Evaluation of intramuscular levonantradol and placebo in acute postoperative pain”. J Clin Pharmacol. (1981) 21: 320S-326S.

JAMES T. “Breaking the law to beat MS”. The Yorkshire Post, 27th September (1993).

JOHNSON MR, MELVIN LS. “The discovery of nonclassical cannabinoid analgesics”. In: Cannabinoids as Therapeutic Agents (ed R Mechoulam) pp 121-145. Boca Raton: CRC Press (1986).

JONES RT, BENOWITZ N, BACHMAN J. “Clinical studies of cannabis tolerance and dependence”. In: Chronic Cannabis Use (ed RL Dornbush,AM Freedman, M Fink) pp 221-239, New York: New York Academy of Sciences (1976).

KANOF PD. “Medicinal marijuana?” N Engl J Med (1997) 336: 1184.

KASSIER JP. “Federal foolishness and marijuana”. N Engl J Med (1997) 336: 336-337.

Nike 872922 Marrón Internationalist Nike 002 002 Internationalist Marrón Mujer 872922 Negras SE SE Marrón Nike Internationalist Negras SE Mujer 872922 Internationalist Nike SE 872922 002 002 Marrón LEVITT M. “Cannabinoids as antiemetics in cáncer chemotherapy”. In: Cannabinoids as Therapeutic Agents (ed R Mechoulam) pp 71-83, Boca Raton: CRC Press (1986).

LINDSTROM P, LINDBLOM U, BOREUS L. “Lack of effect of cannabidiol in sustained neuropathia”. Paper presented at Marijuana ’87 Int. Cont. on Cannabis, Melbourne, September 2 to 4, 1987. (cited by Consroe & Sandyk, 1992).

MARTYN CN, ILLIS LS, THOM J. “Nabilone in the treatment of multiple sclerosis”. Lancet (1995) 345: 579.

MATTES RD, ENGELMAN K, SHAW LM, ELSOHLY MA. “Cannabinoids and appetite stimulation”. Pharmacol Biochem Behav (1994) 49: 187-195.

MAURER M, HENN V, DITTRICH A, HOFMANN A. “Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial”. Eur Arch Psychiatr and Clin Neurosci 240: 1-4.

MERRITT JC, CRAWFORD WJ, ALEXANDER PC, ANDUZE AL, GELBART SS. “Effect of marijuana on intraocular and blood pressure in glaucoma”. Ophthalmology (1980) 87: 222-228.

NAGY CM, FURNAS BE, EINHORN LH, BOND WH. “Nabilone: antiemetic crossover study in cancer chemotherapy patients”. Proceedings of the American Society for Cancer Research (1978) 19: 30.

NOTCUTT W, PRICE M, CHAPMAN G. “Clinical experience with Nabilone for chronic pain”. Pharmaceut Sci (1997) 3: 551-555.

NOYES R, BRUNK SF, BARAM DA, BARAM A. “Analgesic effect of delta-9-tetrahydro-cannabinol”. J Clin Pharmacol (1975a) 15: 139-143.

NOYES R, BRUNK SF, BARAM DA, CANTER A. “The analgesic properties of delta-9-THC and codeine”. Clin Pharmacol Ther (1975b) 18: 84-89.

ORTIZ LOBO, A. “Cannabis: ¿medicina o droga?. Psiquiatría Pública (1998) Vol. 10 (6); 408-412.

PEREZ-REYES M, WAGNER D, WALL ME, DAVIS KH. “Intravenous administration of cannabinoids and intraocular pressure”. In: The Pharmacology of Marihuana (eds MC Braude, S Szara) pp 829-32, New York: Raven Press (1976).

PERTWEE RG. “Cannabis and cannabinoids: Pharmacology and rationale for clinical use” Pharmaceut Sci (1997) 3: 539-545.

PLASSE TF, GORTER RW, KRASNOW SH, LANE M, SHEPARD KV, WADLEIGH RG. “Recent clinical experience with dronabinol”. Pharmacol Biochem Behav (1991) 40: 695-700.

RAFT D, GREGG J, GHIA J, HARRIS L. “Effects of intravenous tetrahydrocannabinol on experimental and surgical pain. Psychological correlates of the analgesic response”. Clin Pharmacol Ther (1977) 21: 26-33.

REGELSON W, BUTLER JR, SCHULZ J, KIRK T, PEEK L, GREEN ML, ZALIS MO. Delta-9-THC as an effective antidepressant and appetite-stimulating agent in advanced cancer patients”. In: The Pharmacology of Marihuana (eds MC Braude, S Szara) pp 763-776, New York: Raven Press (1976).

SANDYK R, AWERBUCH G. “Marijuana and Tourette’s syndrome”. J Clin Psychopharmacology (1988) 8: 444.

SCHWARTZ RH, VOTH EA. “Marijuana as medicine: making a silk purse out of a sow’s ear”. J Addict Dis (1995) 14: 15-21.

SKAPER SD, BURIANI A, DAL TOSO R, PETRELL IL, ROMANELLO L, FACCI L, LEON A. “The ALIAmide palmitoglethandemide and cannabinoids, dot not anandamide, are protective in a delayed postglutamate paradigm of oxytotoxic death in cerebellar granule neurons”. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (1996) 93: 3984-3989.

TASHKIN DP, ROTH MD, DUBINETT SM. “Medicinal marijuana?” N Engl J Med (1997) 336: 1186.

TASHKIN DP, SHAPIRO BJ, FRANK IM. “Acute effects of marihuana on airway dynamics in spontaneous and experimentally produced bronchial asthma”. In: The Pharmacology of Marihuana (eds MC Braude, S Szara), New York: Raven Press (1976).

TAUB A. “Medicina marijuana?” N Engl J Med (1997) 336: 1185.

TREMBLY B, SHERMAN M. “Double-blind clinical study of cannabidiol as a secondary anticonvulsant”. Paper presented at Marijuana ’90 In.Conf. on Cannabis and Cannabinoids, Kolympari (Crete), July 8 to 11 1990. (cited by Consroe & Sandyk, 1992).

VICENT BJ, McQUISTON DJ, EINHORN LH, NAGY CM, BRAMES MJ. “Review of cannabinoids and their antiemetic effectiveness”. Drugs (1983) 25 (suppl. 1): 52-62.

WARDEN J. “UK experts will speed up work on cannabis” Br Med J (1998) 316: 1333.

WILLIAMS SJ, HARTLEY JPR, GRAHAM JDP. “Bronchodilator effect of delta-9-THC administered by aerosol to asthmatic patients”. Thorax (1976) 31: 720-723.

ZURIER RB, ROSSETTI R, LANE JH, GOLDBERG JM, HUNTER SA, BURSTEIN SH. “Dimetylseptyl-THC-II-oic acid: a nonpsychoactive antiinflammatory agent with a cannabinoid template structure”.




DOI: Doggie Xti Zapatillas gris Zapatillas Doggie Xti Doggie gris Zapatillas Xti wYq801xY

SE Mujer Nike SE Negras 002 Marrón Internationalist 872922 002 872922 Nike Internationalist Marrón Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.
Etiqueta de artículo Etiqueta de artículo Añadir sus etiquetas: Añadir etiquetas Utiliza espacios para separar las etiquetas. Usa comillas simples (') para expresiones.